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A synthetic antibiotic first isolated from Streptomyces venezuelae. It is effective against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. It interferes with translation on the 50S ribosomal subunit at the peptidyl transferase step (elongation inhibition) and inhibits mitochondrial and chloroplast protein synthesis.
Chloramphenicol and several analogues inhibited DNA synthesis in Ehrlich Ascites cells under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence and absence of glucose. It is used mainly for opthalmic (eye drops) and veterinary purposes. Used as a seletion agent for transformed cells containing chloramphenicol resistance genes.
|Alternate Names||D-(−)-threo-2,2-Dichloro-N-[β-hydroxy-α-(hydroxymethyl)-β-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]acetamide; D-(−)-threo-2-Dichloroacetamido-1-(4-nitrophenyl)-1,3-propanediol; D-threo-2,2-Dichloro-N-[β-hydroxy-α-(hydroxymethyl)-4-nitrophenethyl]acetamide; Chloromycetin; Anacetin; Chlomin; Embacetin; Mychel; veticol|
|Application Notes||Chloramphenicol and several analogues inhibited DNA synthesis in Ehrlich Ascites cells under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence and absence of glucose. It is used mainly for opthalmic (eye drops) and veterinary purposes. Used as a seletion agent for transformed cells containing chloramphenicol resistance genes.|
|Base Catalog Number||190321|
|Beilstein Registry Number||2225532|
|Biochemical Physiological Actions||Mode of Action: Chloramphenicol inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by blocking the peptidyl transferase step by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit and preventing attachment of aminoacyl tRNA to the ribosome. It also inhibits mitochondrial and chloroplast protein synthesis and ribosomal formation of (p)ppGpp, de-pressing rRNA transcription.Mode of Resistance: Use of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase will acetylate the product and inactivate it.Antimicrobial Spectrum: This is a broad spectrum antibiotic against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and is used mainly for ophthalmic and veterinary purposes.|
|Extinction Coefficient||(278 nm) = 298 (water) (Lit.)|
|Optical Rotation||(c=5 ethanol)+18 ° ± 5 °|
|Personal Protective Equipment||Eyeshields, Faceshields, full-face particle respirator, Gloves, respirator cartridge, respirator filter|
|pH||NEUTRAL TO LITMUS|
|Solubility||Water Solubility2500 mg/L (at 25 °C)|
|Typical Working Concentration||5 -20 µg/mL|
|Vapor Pressure||1.7X10-12 mm Hg at 25 deg C /Estimated/|