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Dextran sulfate sodium salt, colitis grade (36,000 - 50,000)

Dextran sulfate sodium salt, colitis grade (36,000 - 50,000)

$84.00

Key features and details

  • Induces severe colitis (inflamatory bowel disease)
  • Highest sulfur content – 19%
  • Highest chirality - +104° of specific rotation
  • Lowest pH – 6.2 at 1% solution

SKU: 02160110-CF

Synonyms
DSS, Dextran Sodium Sulfate
CAS Number:
9011-18-1
Molecular Weight:
36,000 - 50,000 Da
MDL Number:
MFCD00081551
Product Description

Dextran sulfate sodium salt, or DSS, is a synthetic sulfated branched polysaccharide derivative of dextran that has multiple uses in biomedical and clinical research (see table below). One important property of DSS is to triggers colitis in mice and rats when administered in drinking water. DSS binds to medium-chain-length fatty acids in the colon and induces intestinal inflammation. MP Premium Dextran Sulfate Sodium Salt (MW = 36,000–50,000) from MP Biomedicals is one of the most widely used product based on peer reviewed scientific publications. Over the past 15 years 3,000+ scientific publications have cited the use of our DSS.

1. Question: Can tests be conducted at different time points during DSS modeling to observe the time when the epithelial barrier will be damaged in the early stage of DSS drinking?
Answer: Yes, generally 2 days cause epithelial barrier destruction, you can observe it on Day 3, Day 5, Day7; A pathological examination is suggested to perform.

2. Question: How much water do mice and rats drink every day?
Answer: The daily water intake of mice is 7~10ml/100g body weight/day, and that of rats is 11ml/100g body weight/day.

3. Question: Literature reports on the length of modeling time for AOM/DSS models are not consistent. Are there other models of bowel cancer, like induced by DSS alone?
Answer: There are other models, but each model serves a different purpose. DSS can induce intestinal cancer itself, but the induction time is long. References: Nature Protocols; 2007, 2 (8): 1998-2004

4. Question: Why are the concentrations of DSS used in different batches different?
Answer: DSS is a dextran polymer with average molecular weight. There is a difference in molecular weight between batches, and molecular weight has an influence on enteritis modeling. In general, DSS batches are relatively stable, but there are some large batch differences in some batches. Therefore, it is suggested that customers purchase enough quantity products of the same batch according to their own experimental requirements or conduct pre-experiments before changing batches.

5. Question: No significant weight loss was observed in 3% of DSS mice after 3 days?
Answer: It is normal for some animals to have a slow reaction time and even lose weight on the fifth day after drinking DSS. If no symptoms appear for 7 days, the experiment is repeated and the drinking concentration of DSS is suggested to increase by 0.5~1%.

6. Question: Why are the DSS concentrations different in different labs while the same batch of DSS and the same animal strain are used?
Answer: There are many factors affecting DSS modeling, among which the breeding environment of animals also has a great influence.

7. Question: Is it normal to have intestinal bleeding after DSS modeling?
Answer: Excessive drinking concentration of DSS will lead to intestinal bleeding. Mild intestinal bleeding has no significant effect. Excessive bleeding is suggested to reduce the concentration of DSS.

8. Question: After DSS drinking, weight loss was obvious, but there was no inflammation in HE staining of pathological sections. Why?
Answer: Only when drinking DSS reach a certain threshold can it successfully induce enteritis. If the threshold is not reached, weight loss can occur, but the pathology shows no inflammation.

9. Question: Why do animals with the same concentration of DSS in the second cycle of chronic enteritis model show less obvious symptoms than those in the first cycle?
Answer: DSS is tolerated by animals over a period of time, so symptoms decrease to normal during the second cycle.

10. Question: DNA was extracted from feces samples of DSS induced mice, and RNA extracted from colon tissues would contain DSS residue, which would inhibit downstream PCR. How to do with RT-PCR experiment?
Answer: Spermine can remove the inhibition of PCR by DSS. References: Journal of Microbiological Methods, 2018 Jan, 144:1-7

11. Question: How to proceed modeling by gavage?
Answer: Give 2% of DSS solution to the stomach at 10:00 a.m., 14:00 p.m. and 18:00 p.m. respectively every day, 30ml/kg each time, no additional drinking water. Full amount of mixed formula granule feed was given after the last gavage every day, and the feed was taken away at 8:00 a.m. the next day. The modeling cycle time is 9 days. References: A comparative study of dextran sodium sulfate free drinking and quantitative gavage induced acute colitis model in mice, gastroenterology 2009,14 (1), 27-30

12. Question: Is there any difference between Babl/ C and C57 in induction of enteritis?
Answer: There is a difference, C57 background is pure, induced enteritis is more stable. When using Babl/ C mice, preliminary experiments are suggested.

13. Question: What is the difference between DSS modeling and TNBS modeling?
Answer: TNBS: Long course of inflammation. Large individual differences. Low similarity with ulcerative colitis.

14. Question: Acute modeling, should water be changed midway? If yes, usually on Day 7, or Day 5 or Day 6? And then continue to feed water two more days?
Answer: It is recommended to replace DSS aqueous solution in Day 1 or Day 2. The cycle time of acute modeling is 5~7 days.

15. Question: How do the suggested DSS concentration of 2~5% set up? Sometimes the results are obvious when DSS concentration is 2%, but it is not obvious when DSS concentration is 2.5%.
Answer: DSS concentration of 2~5% is the result that we summarized according to the previous literatures. We found that the concentrations of researchers within in this range. When we did it for the first time, it was more than 3%, but it is suggested to do a preliminary experiment to determine the actual induced concentration before the formal experiment.

16. Question: Can DSS be used in cell experiments?
Answer: Yes, reference: YAP triggers the Wnt/ -catenin signaling pathway and prime enterocyte self-renewal, regeneration and tumorigenesis after DSS-induced injury. Cell death and Disease, 2018(9):153

17. Question: Is 30mg/g the daily dose? If 18~20mg weight a mice, 7 ml water a day, then DSS concentration should be 8%? It's more than 7 days.
Answer: The threshold of 30mg/g is the total intake rather than the daily intake. The formula is, Total drinking volume (ml) X [DSS (g)/100 ml])/Initial body weight (g).

18. Question: After DSS treatment of colon, extract RNA for quantitative, why there’s no Ct value?
Answer: It may be due to intestinal residual DSS, which inhibit the downstream experiment. Spermine is suggested for DSS removal. In addition, it may also be caused by inhibitors contained in feces, so the template concentration is suggested to be diluted before PCR. If dilution works, it is suggested to optimize the extraction procedure of fecal DNA and remove too inhibitors first.

19. Question: Is there an overview of DSS usage among different molecular weights?
Answer: Other functions of DSS: anticoagulation, lowering blood lipid, anti-virus, inhibiting effect on some enzymes, improving nucleic acid hybridization and cosmetic additives.

20. Question: I tried to mold Balbc with 5% concentration and lose 15%-18% body weight while HE staining did not change, why? Which part should I take for a sample?
Answer: It is recommended to take 1~2cm near the anal segment.

21. Question: What is the mechanism of DSS caused colitis? Is there an official explanation?
Answer: References: Gastroenterology, 2002, 123(1):256-270; J Immunol, 2004, 172(9): 5664-5675; Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2013, 22(12): 1221-1224; Inflammatory bowel disease, 1998, 124-125; J Pharmacol Toxi-colog Methods, 2004, 50(1):81-81

22. Question: What are the specific cytokines that induce ulcerative colitis in DSS?
Answer: The expression of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-interferon, IL-10 and IL-12 increased on the first day of DSS solution administration and gradually increased with the time of administration. The expression of IL-and IL-mrna was increased in acute DSS colitis model. Th2-cell-mediated cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 also play an important role in the chronic DSS colitis model.

23. Question: How many grams of mice are generally selected? Some mice gain weight quickly in the growth stage, but the weight loss is not obvious after DSS solution feeding?
Answer: Literature suggests that mice weight should be not less than 16~18g, and the mice should be selected according to week age. 8~12 weeks is recommended, and the weight is about 22g.

24. Question: When DSS intake does not reach the threshold, clinical manifestations such as weight loss may occur, but the pathological manifestations may not be obvious. So is the blood in the feces more in sync with the pathology than the ones with weight loss or changes in stool hardness?
Answer: Body weight and DAI index are not related to the intake threshold, which means the blood in the feces is not synchronized with the pathology.

25. Question: After being treated with 2.5% concentration for 7 days, the body weight continued to drop in the first two days, followed by weight gain (lower than the initial weight). The body weight has been repeated without continuous reduction, and the colon length has been significantly reduced. Why?
Answer: Please check whether there is no significant difference in the amount of water the animals drink each day, and check all animals have repeated weight or some animals only. It has to do with individual differences in animals.

Application Notes

Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) is one of the most common and effective compounds used for inducing ulcerative colitis in animals. The DSS colitis model has also been used extensively to study colon cancer developing in relation to colonic inflammation, such as that occurring in patients with long-standing ulcerative colitis.

MP Biomedicals offers the gold standard of colitis model creation reagents - colitis grade dextran sulfate sodium salt (36,000-50,000) and colonic carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM).

Because of its high efficacy, MP Biomedical DSS is one of the most widely used DSS products in the scientific literature. Over the past 19 years more than 10,000 scientific publications have cited the use of MP Biomedicals’ DSS products and reported successful animal model establishment.

Usage Statement

Unless specified otherwise, MP Biomedical's products are for research or further manufacturing use only, not for direct human use. For more information, please contact our customer service department.

Key Applications

Acute/ Chronic Ulcerative Colitis Model Induction, Chronic Colitis Associated Colon Cancer Model Induction

Specifications
SKU 02160110-CF
Alternate Names DSS, Dextran Sodium Sulfate
Application Notes

Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) is one of the most common and effective compounds used for inducing ulcerative colitis in animals. The DSS colitis model has also been used extensively to study colon cancer developing in relation to colonic inflammation, such as that occurring in patients with long-standing ulcerative colitis.

MP Biomedicals offers the gold standard of colitis model creation reagents - colitis grade dextran sulfate sodium salt (36,000-50,000) and colonic carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM).

Because of its high efficacy, MP Biomedical DSS is one of the most widely used DSS products in the scientific literature. Over the past 19 years more than 10,000 scientific publications have cited the use of MP Biomedicals’ DSS products and reported successful animal model establishment.

Base Catalog Number 160110
Boiling Point 310 ° C
CAS # 9011-18-1
Grade Colitis Grade
Melting Point 92 ° C
Molecular Weight 36,000 - 50,000 Da
Personal Protective Equipment Eyeshields, Gloves, respirator filter
pH (1% aqueous solution) 5-7.11
References

Kinchen, J. Structural Remodeling of the Human Colonic Mesenchyme in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Cell. 2018, 175, 372-386.


Mahalhal , A. Oral iron exacerbates colitis and influences the intestinal microbiome, PLOS ONE. 2018, 13, e0202460.


Dokoshi, T. Hyaluronidase inhibits reactive adipogenesis and inflammation of colon and skin. JCI Insight. 2018, 3, e12307.


Zhu, H. RNA virus receptor Rig-I monitors gut microbiota and inhibits colitis-associated colorectal cancer. J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 2017, 36, 2.


Monticelli, L. IL-33 promotes an innate immune pathway of intestinal tissue protection dependent on amphiregulin–EGFR interactions. PNAS. 2015, 112, 10762-10767.

RTECS Number HH9290000
Solubility 100 mg/mL (decreases with increasing of MW)
Usage Statement Unless specified otherwise, MP Biomedical's products are for research or further manufacturing use only, not for direct human use. For more information, please contact our customer service department.
Vapor Pressure 2.6 x 10-4 mm Hg at 25 ° C (Estimated)
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