CHAPSO is the hydroxy analog of CHAPS; a nondenaturing zwitterionic detergent for solubilizing proteins, especially integral membrane proteins while maintaining the functional capability of the protein of interest. It has a more polar head group than CHAPS, giving it a greater solubility. CHAPSO has a high CMC (8 mM) and does not denature membrane-bound proteins. It can solubilize the opiate receptor in a state exhibiting reversible binding of opiates.
Choline chloride is an organic compound and a quaternary ammonium salt. It is a weak acid. Choline chloride is the salt of the naturally occurring choline, the pre-stage of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is important for mnemonic and thought-processes. Choline occurs naturally in fungi, hop and kingcups and as integral part of lecithin. Choline chloride is a common food additive in animal husbandry
Guanidine hydrochloride consists of a networkof guanidinium cations and chloride anions linked by N–H•••Cl hydrogen bonds,it is a strong chaotropic agent. Guanidine HCl may agglomerate upon storage. It may appear as a free-flowing crystalline powder, a free flowing powder with solid material dispersed throughout, or a solid. The quality of the product does not appear to be affected and solutions prepared from the free-flowing and lumpy guanidine HCl appear identical.