Urea

Urea

Synonyms Carbamide; Carbonyldiamide

CAS Number: 57-13-6 Molecular Formula: CH4N2O Molecular Weight: 60.056 g/mol

Beilstein Registry Number: 635724 EC Number: 200-315-5 MDL Number: MFCD00008022

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SKU 02191450-CF
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Description

Product Description

Urea

Application Notes

Urea is a mild agent usually used in the solubilization and denaturation of proteins. It is also useful for renaturing proteins from samples already denatured with 6 M guanidine hydrochloride such as inclusion bodies; and in the extraction of the mitochondrial complex. It is commonly used to solubilize and denature proteins for denaturing isoelectric focusing and two-dimensional electrophoresis and in acetic acid-urea PAGE gels.Urea in solution is in equilibrium with ammonium cyanate. The form that reacts with protein amino groups is isocyanic acid. Urea in the presence of heat and protein leads to carbamylation of the proteins. Carbamylation by isocyanic acid interferes with protein characterization because isocyanic acid reacts with the amino terminus of proteins, preventing N-terminal sequencing. Isocyanic acid also reacts with side chains of lysine and arginine residues resulting in a protein that is unsuitable for many enzymatic digests. In addition, carbamylation often leads to confusing results from peptides having unexpected retention times and masses.Urea is used in cell or tissue culture media to increase the osmolality.Urea has also been used as fertilizer because of the easy availability of nitrogen; in animal feeds; it is reacted with aldehydes to make resins and plastics; condensed with malonic ester to form barbituric acid; used in the paper industry to soften cellulose; used as a diuretic; enhances the action of sulfonamides; an antiseptic.Used for the denaturation of proteins and as a mild solubilization agent for insoluble or denatured proteins. Useful for renaturing proteins from samples already denatured with 6 M guanidine chloride such as inclusion bodies. May be used with guanidine hydrochloride and dithiothreitrol (DTT) in the refolding of denatured proteins into their native or active form.

Usage Statement

Research Use Only (RUO). Unless otherwise stated in our catalog or other company documentation accompanying the product(s), our products are intended for research use only and are not to be used for any other purpose, which includes but is not limited to, unauthorized commercial uses, in vitro diagnostic uses, ex vivo or in vivo therapeutic uses or any type of consumption or application to humans or animals.

Key Applications

Metabolic Pathways||Chaotropic Agents||Denaturation||Renaturing proteins

Specifications
SKU 02191450-CF
Alternate Names Carbamide; Carbonyldiamide
Application Notes Urea is a mild agent usually used in the solubilization and denaturation of proteins. It is also useful for renaturing proteins from samples already denatured with 6 M guanidine hydrochloride such as inclusion bodies; and in the extraction of the mitochondrial complex. It is commonly used to solubilize and denature proteins for denaturing isoelectric focusing and two-dimensional electrophoresis and in acetic acid-urea PAGE gels.Urea in solution is in equilibrium with ammonium cyanate. The form that reacts with protein amino groups is isocyanic acid. Urea in the presence of heat and protein leads to carbamylation of the proteins. Carbamylation by isocyanic acid interferes with protein characterization because isocyanic acid reacts with the amino terminus of proteins, preventing N-terminal sequencing. Isocyanic acid also reacts with side chains of lysine and arginine residues resulting in a protein that is unsuitable for many enzymatic digests. In addition, carbamylation often leads to confusing results from peptides having unexpected retention times and masses.Urea is used in cell or tissue culture media to increase the osmolality.Urea has also been used as fertilizer because of the easy availability of nitrogen; in animal feeds; it is reacted with aldehydes to make resins and plastics; condensed with malonic ester to form barbituric acid; used in the paper industry to soften cellulose; used as a diuretic; enhances the action of sulfonamides; an antiseptic.Used for the denaturation of proteins and as a mild solubilization agent for insoluble or denatured proteins. Useful for renaturing proteins from samples already denatured with 6 M guanidine chloride such as inclusion bodies. May be used with guanidine hydrochloride and dithiothreitrol (DTT) in the refolding of denatured proteins into their native or active form.
Auto Ignition Not flammable (USCG, 1999)
Beilstein Registry Number 635724
Boiling Point Decomposes (NTP, 1992)
Density 1.34 at 68° F (USCG, 1999)
EC Number 200-315-5
Format powder
Grade ACS
Heavy Metals <0.001%, Iron <0.001%
Insoluble Matter <0.01%
Applications Metabolic Pathways||Chaotropic Agents||Denaturation||Renaturing proteins
MDL # MFCD00008022
Melting Point 275° F (NTP, 1992)
Molecular Formula CH4N2O
Molecular Weight 60.056 g/mol
Personal Protective Equipment Eyeshields, Gloves, Respirator filter
pH 7.2 (10% solution)
Physical Appearance White Crystalline Powder
Product Families Description Urea
Product Overview Urea
Purity ≥99%
Residue on Ignition <0.01%
RTECS Number YR6250000
Solubility >9 [ug/mL]
Storage and Handling Room Temperature
Typical Working Concentration Urea is typically used at a concentration of 8 M for protein denaturation or solubilization. A final concentration of 5 M urea is commonly used in molecular biology for sequencing gels. To prevent carbamylation, do not heat urea containing buffers above 37 °C.
Usage Statement Research Use Only (RUO). Unless otherwise stated in our catalog or other company documentation accompanying the product(s), our products are intended for research use only and are not to be used for any other purpose, which includes but is not limited to, unauthorized commercial uses, in vitro diagnostic uses, ex vivo or in vivo therapeutic uses or any type of consumption or application to humans or animals.
Vapor Pressure 1.2X10-5 mm Hg @ 25 deg C