HTLV Detection Kits and Automated Systems
HTLV Technical Information
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The HTLV Virus
HTLVs are spherical particles, 100nm in diameter, made up of an external lipid bilayer/glycoprotein envelope covering an internal protein core. The core contains several copies of reverse transcriptase bound to two identical single-stranded RNA molecules. The RNA codes for internal core proteins (gag), external envelope proteins (env), reverse transcriptase (polymerase) (pol), and regulatory proteins (tax, rex).
HTLV Viral Structure
HTLV Viral Genome
Viral Genome
The structure of the viral genome is a linear, dimeric, single-stranded positive RNA (ssRNA) with a 5'-cap and a 3'poly-A tail. There are two long terminal repeats (LTRs) at the 5' and 3' ends of about 550-750 nucleotides long containing U3, R, and U5 regions. Primer binding site (PBS) is present at the 5'end and a polypurine tract (PPT) at the 3'end. The lengths of the HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 proviral genomes are about 9.0 and 8.9 kilobases, respectively.
Viral Profile
Family: Retroviridae
Subamily: Orthoretroviridae
Genus: Deltavirus
Cell Tropism
HTLV-1:CD4+ T-cells
HTLV-2:CD8+ T-cells
HTLV-1 subtypes:
A (Cosmopolitan)
B (Central African group)
C (Melanesian group)
D (New Central African group)
E (Efe pygmy from the Democratic Republic of Congo)
F (Gabon Group)
G (Southern Cameroon group)
HTLV-2 subtypes:
A (Consmopolitan)
B (Central African group)
D (New Central African group)
Southwestern Japan
The Caribbean basin
Southeastern United States
Southern Italy
Sub-Saharan Africa
Worldwide (Intravenous drug users)
Native American populations
Intravenous drug users in Europe and United States.
Proietti et. al. Global epidemiology of HTLV-1 infection and associated diseases. Oncogene. 2005;24:6058-6068
Verdonck et. al. Review - Human T-lymphotropic virus 1;recent knowledge about an ancient infection. Lancet Infect Dis. 2007;7:266-81
Roucoux et al. The Epidemiology and Disease Outcomes of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type II. AIDS Reviews 2004;6:144-54
Disclaimer Notice
The health information contained herein is provided for educational, reference purposes only, and is not intended to substitute professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment with a healthcare provider. All decisions regarding patient care must be made with a healthcare provider, considering the unique characteristics of the patient. Please check the availability and relevance of the information in your respective country.